Fourth grade students’ experiments grow more sophisticated than in the primary school years. With guidance from the teacher, their observations become more systematic; their predictions, hypotheses, and analyses grow more detailed. For example, teachers might ask students to spot contradictory results in their experiments, or make predictions based on data from graphs. Children learn and practice different aspects of scientific inquiry: how to make written descriptions and sketches of observations; keep organized records of investigations; offer reasons for their findings, etc. Fourth graders study topics such as: The Human Body the circulatory system (e.g., structure of heart, role of red and white blood cells) the respiratory system (e.g., lungs, oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange) effects of smoking on the lungs Chemistry: Basic Tenns and Concepts structure of atoms (protons, neutrons, electrons) electrical charges of electrons (-), protons (+) ,neutrons (neutral) basic properties of matter (e.g., concepts of mass, volume, density, vacuum) what elements are; some familiar elements (e.g., gold, oxygen) how solutions form (e.g., solutes, solvents) Electricity electricity as the flow of electrons static electricity electric current and circuits (e., closed, open, and short circuits) conductors and insulators Geology: The Earth and Its Changes earth’s layers (e., crust, mantle, core) earthquakes (e.g.,...

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