Fourth grade students learn about Europe in the Middle Ages. Building on their introduction to Islam in first grade, they read and hear more about Islamic civilization. They study some early and medieval African kingdoms. In U.S. history, children explore the American Revolution.  They take a closer look at the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the difficult task of establishing democratic government, and some basic principles of American democracy. Fourth graders study topics such as: World History and Geography World Geography how to read maps using longitude and latitude more map features (e.g., time zones, International Date Line) relief maps major mountains and ranges (e.g., Mount Everest, Alps) Europe in the Middle Ages geography of Western Europe (e.g., English Channel, Danube River) invasions after the fall of Rome (e.g., Visigoths, Attila the Hun) role of the Christian Church (e.g., rise of monasteries, Charlemagne) feudalism (e.g., lords and vassals; code of chivalry) growth of towns (e.g., guilds and apprentices) England (e.g., Magna Carta, beginnings of Parliament) The Spread of Islam and the “Holy Wars” Muhammad the Prophet; Allah; the Koran Islamic culture (e.g., the “Five Pillars,” Arabic numerals) History and Geography wars between Muslims and Christians (e.g., Crusades, Saladin, Richard the...

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